Urban Goat Keeping

May 14, 2018

We have two female toggenburg goats, Gerty (the mum) and her daughter Jilly Love Face.

Despite having some wonderful “goat friends” locally and in other parts of the country, I still found it hard to get information on how to set up our urban system which we did in September 2017. This is the blog I wish I could have read at the time – hopefully it helps a few folks out there looking to give urban goat keeping (and milking) a go.

Our context

Our main incentive to have goats is to be able to access ethical dairy. While we have just over 3/4 of an acre, we’re less than 3kms from Hobart city, so it’s very urban all around us. Our property is incredibly steep which meant we terraced it to form some functional spaces. Our two goats live on one of these terraces. They don’t free-range across the whole property as we have extensive vegetable gardens and large orchards they would destroy, instead we tether them around the garden at key points where they can eat grass and shrubs. We also take them for little walks down the local bush track to get some exercise.

The front gate leading into the goat yard. The chickens also share this space – that’s their blue house on the left. 

Goat breeds are good for small spaces?

The two breeds I know that are appropriate for this type of goat keeping are toggenburgs and saanens. I’m sure there are more, I just don’t know about them.

What do we feed them?

We feed our goats four main things, rolled barley, dry pasture hay, mixed oat/lucern chaff and a range of fresh fodder.

What fresh fodder? We have a lot of weedy bushland to the south of our property that’s on Council land. We harvest weeds from here and occasionally allow them to graze there (with us). We also chop and feed them fresh prunings from our weedy windbreak (featurning Cotoneaster and Pittosporum trees).

We also tether them around our garden on a 4m chain in key areas where they can eat grass, herbs and shrubs – but not our food crops.

Plus we’re growing fodder trees for them. This includes silver wattles and tagasaste (tree lucerne) that have self sewn on our land. We tansplant the baby seedlings to where we want them to grow and will prune them over the coming years to an appropriate shape for our garden. Here’s a list of plants you can and can’t feed your goats.

Mineral supplements: We also have a mineral lick permanently available in their shed, it has 16 ingredients ranging from copper, calcium, phosphorous, bentonite, iodine, iron and more.

I also have some seaweed meal I add into their feed bucket occasionally, however if they don’t want it, they’ll somehow manage to leave most of it in the bucket.

Interestingly, goats don’t eat everything. They’re incredibly fussy eaters and I spent a sh*t load of time working out their diet for our urban context. We’re now in a good rythym, but those first few months were hard work.

Frida with Jilly who’s being tethered near a comfrey patch for her munching pleasure. 

Gerty and Jilly eating the weedy banana passionfruit vine that’s trying to eat our house!

How big is their permanent yard?

Their permanent yard is approximately 70m2 which includes their shed.

Importantly, we make sure there’s always a thick layer of woodchips and/or straw on the ground so there’s never any risk of them being on bare soil or mud.

We’ve also arranged some timber pallets and logs for them to run and jump on – goats will get board if they don’t have an obstacle course they can play on.

Isn’t that a bit small?

It would be if that’s where they spent all their time. We also walk them and tether them around our garden, so they get a lot of diversity.

What about their fencing?

We don’t have an electric fence – just standard wallaby fencing with star pickets. This has been mostly fine – with one exception when Jilly was on heat* and somehow got out. We assume she jumped the fence, but we didn’t see it happen and it hasn’t happened again – fingers crossed.

EDIT (2021): A year or so ago we upgraded their fence to have strong hardwood timber with mesh in between. As goats love to use fences to scratch their backs on, this timber version is much more robust :-). 

*Goats turn into lunatics when their on heat – she’s since returned to her normal, chill – but perky self.

You can see the fence to the right – it’s a bit wavy as they like to scratch their backs on it. We just need to tighten it up a bit, otherwise it’s fine. 

What’s their milking shed like?

We built the shed from recycled timber, timber flitches and other materials including relocated slabs of concrete the excavator pulled up from our garden – this forms the floor (which has straw on top). The shed has three sections;

  1. The general hang out section which includes the milking stand,
  2. The food storage section (that they can’t access), and
  3. The pen, which is  a small room we put Jilly (the younger daughter) in while we milk Gerty to stop her from jumping all over us. When she was a baby, Jilly would spend each night in this pen – read next section for how this worked.

Our goat shed plan – not to scale

While we’ve planted lots of trees all around the goat yard, there’s currently no natural shade – hence the shade sales. Over this next year I’d like to make them another shade shelter as the summer’s are so hot here. 

Two 44 gallon drums for storing feed – keeps the rodents out of it. 

Jilly with the milking stand to her right

You can see the mineral lick and hay feeder to the right of the goats

Milk for us and the baby goat

We keep Jilly and Gerty together all day, meaning when she was still feeding, Jilly could help herself to milk as needed. Every night around 9/10pm, I’d place her in the small pen (with straw and water) so she wouldn’t drink all the milk over night. Early each morning (at sunrise) I would then milk Gerty for our own use. Directly after this, I’d let Jilly out of her pen and they’d be together for the next 16 hours of so. This worked well up until Jilly was weaned…

How did we wean Jilly, the young goat?

We didn’t. We let Gerty (her mum) make this happen. Recently (in Autumn 2018) they were both on heat, as Jilly was only 7 months old (and we want to rest Gerty) we didn’t mate them with a buck. Interestingly, once they came off heat Gerty would no longer let Jilly anywhere near her teats.

This was great for us as we really didn’t have a way of weaning Jilly in such a small space. A common way of weaning kids is to put them in a separate paddock than their mums. They can still see each other and kiss noses, but nothing else. We don’t have this option in our space – so we’re quite releaved it happened naturally.

Treating worms and other health issues?

These two goats came off an organic goat farm where they were treated with herbs, minerals and good pasture/food. When they arrived, Jilly was just two days old and in perfect helath, while Gerty was a bit run down from being pregnant and living through a rough winter on pasture. She had a small section of staff on her udder which was spreading, was a bit under weight and had signs of worms. This is what we did…

Staff: After doing an enormous amount of research, spending too much time on goat forums and trying every natural remedy we could, we ended up treating her with zinc cream and lavender oil which our good friend and naturopath, Thea Webb, actually recommended. Within hours this treatment started working – to my absolute relief!

Weight: You can actually buy a product called “weight gain” for livestock, it’s a rich mix of high protein grains you add into your chaff mix. For unknown reasons Gerty would eat around it and not consume any. In small amounts (no more than .6kgs per day per goat) oats and barley are highly effective options as well. I initally ended up spending a bit too much money of organic oats (I panicked) and eventually learned rolled barley is a fraction of the price and just as effective. These days I mix in a small amount of barley (rolled) in with their chaff each morning and night.

Worms: I ended up getting a vet out to check out Gerty as her poo which was forming big clumps instead of small pellets and her eyelids were a pale pink when they should be a vibrant pink colour – both potential symptoms of worms. The vet tested her poo which showed she had small levels of barber pole worm – blood sucking parasites that cause anemia and even death. While they had previously been treated only with essential oils, minerals and fresh pasture, I chose to drench Gerty this one time (at least) as I was sooo out of my depth and wanted to get her back to top health asap. It worked really well and I’m relieved we went down that track. She started putting on weight easily, was a lot more perky and generally “happier”.

These days I’m on a preventative treatment program with worms. Every month I add organic oregano oil mixed with some water into their feed for one week on and one week off – I repeat this for two cycles. So far this appears to be working well. I’m still on a steep learning curve with goat health, so watch this space for more preventative approaches.

EDIT 2021:

  • We’ve since found out that worms can’t live without pasture. As our goats mostly live in their yard with a woodchip surface (which we replenish as needed), the worm’s life cycle is interrupted and our goats no longer have worms. There’s more detail to it, but that’s the general gist.
  • Bioworma – For those of you looking for a natural product for worming goats, CSIRO have launched Biowoma.

How economical is having a milking goat?

Buying organic, ethical dairy from farms we believe in isn’t overly cheap – and neither should it be. We would easily spend around $50 per week on milk, yoghurt and some cheese.

Buying food for our two goats for one month is roughly around $150, so a bit cheaper than buying organic, ethical dairy*. However we (happily) spend between 30 minutes – 1 hour a day with our goats, so it takes a lot of time – as they should. If we were to price our time in looking after them, then it isn’t economical at all.

But I don’t believe economics should be the only way to measure whether something’s worthwhile doing. Conventional dairy is cheap because it has nasty practices that have negative impacts on the environment and disastrous ramifications for animal wellbeing.

*Update – August 2018: We’ve now stopped buying in feed bales as they weren’t eating them. Instead they have a chaff/barley mix and fresh fodder (tree branches and grass). This has bought the monthly feeding fee down to approximately $70. 

Should everyone keep goats for ethical dairy?

No. I don’t think everyone should run out and get dairy goats as it’s not for the faint hearted. They’re very real, big, beautiful animals that need a lot of attention. I think for most people, they should just spend a bit more and buy organic, ethical dairy – in Tasmania, that’s Elgaar Dairy.  We chose to have goats for a few reasons;

  1. I couldn’t think of a more ethical way to access dairy. On this micro level – our goats get a lot of attention and care. 
  2. We work from home, this means we can really invest in our landscape and the animals that live here. 
  3. I love goats and want to spend a lot of time with them. They’re not just milk suppliers for us – they’re wonderful, caring, smart animals to hang out with – better company than a lot of humans.

A few other things

  • We only milk once a day – in the morning.  Currently we’re getting around 2 litres each morning – this will slow down over winter.
  • With the milk we get we make yoghurt, feta cheese, halloumi cheese and ricotta. Update – Aug 2018- Anton’s now also making hard Tomme cheese and blue cheeses.
  • We feed our goats an oat/lucerne/barley mix twice a day for breaky and dinner.
  • Every 6 – 8 weeks we clip their hooves, it’s such an awkward, hard job that’s our least favourite thing to do (just a little heads up for you).
  • Now Jilly is almost adult size, walking them takes two people as if they get spooked by a car – they can *really* run. They’re stronger than me.
  • If you have small kids of the human type, watch them around the goats. Our goats like to head but our 3 year old Frida as she’s smaller than them (and really loud).
  • You can never have just one goat – you have to have at least two, otherwise they can get depressed (seriously). And no, having chickens or other types of animals doesn’t replace the company of another goat – it has to be another goat.
  • Unlike the goat milk you buy from the shop, fresh goat milk doesn’t taste “goaty” at all. It’s quite sweet, clean and darn tasty. The goaty taste comes after around 5 days (ish), it’s not a bad thing at all – but I personally don’t like it very much.
  • Will we have goats forever? It’s highly possible, but we’re very realistic about it all. If our goats obviously weren’t happy and needed a different context we’d give it to them, i.e. find a farm for them to live on. We only want a wonderful life for them.
  • You can watch a 2021 tour of our goat system below…

Want to know more?

your thoughts:


  1. Di Roguszka

    Terrific write up, really informative

  2. Millie Walker

    Oh my gosh! I am so glad you posted this as I really want goats on my land as weed control. Aside from learning that Boar goats are the best for my situation I haven’t been able to find a lot of information on food, tethering and housing.

    You’re a godsend Hannah! Thanks for posting this

    • Hannah Moloney

      Pleasure Millie – I hoped it would help. I too found it really hard to find info when researching (still do). 🙂

  3. Leane Huffer

    Thank you so much for this heartfelt and very informative article I follow your adventures on Instagram. We are planning to move from Sydney to southern Tasmania and plan to buy a property with about 2-5 acres and I went to a small at farm expo and fell in love with goats.

    • Hannah Moloney

      They’re very loveable :-). Good luck with your big move!

  4. Phoebe

    Thanks Hannah, this is excellent! I especially love the pics of your goaty and human family and all the colour in your lives. We’re working hard at establishing our Goat Collective at Aldinga Ecovillage — the shed plan will be super helpful for designing our own space. Hope you’re all well x

    • Hannah Moloney

      Yaaay Phoebe! Look forward to dropping by when I’m next there to check it out! xx

  5. Kim barnard

    Very good read , I too am looking at getting Dairy goats but looking at Anglo Nubians , I’m on 2.7 acres was good to read your ideas ,👍🏻 As another natural alternative to worming you could also try diatomaceous earth in there feed ,I’ve started putting it in my dogs food & he’s been taking in now for a week & his skin allergies have gone & he’s stopped itching , research it if you like .

    • Hannah Moloney

      Ah yes, DE has been mentioned to me before – I’ll look into it again. Thanks Kim 🙂

  6. JJ

    Hey Hannah, thanks for taking the time to write this. This is the blog I was hanging out for, definitely worth the wait!
    Thanks, JAyatma (JJ)

    • Hannah Moloney

      Ha ha – thanks for your paitence JJ :-). Just had to learn some key things before I wrote about them!

  7. Ron

    Hi Hannah. Wow! I learned a lot from this write-up. I’m quite impressed with how much work you’ve put into taking care of the goats. You have spacious land or property so I guess it’s really a good opportunity to use them for keeping goats. They’re also a big help in clearing those vines trying to eat your house!

    I agree that keeping goats is not for everyone. But if given the chance, I would also prefer keeping goats even if it isn’t economical because I would be 100% sure of the freshness and the ethical process. I also think it’s great to have milk readily available at your own house, it just sounds exciting.

    • Hannah Moloney

      Yep, it’s pretty cool having these beautiful creatures in the landscape. Every day I tell them I love them and thank them for being here :-).

  8. Sylvia Wells

    I’m a afraid this post made me a bit green (with envy). I used to have milking goats… the committment was hard for other family members and now that we live in a urban block of 500m – its a dream again. This is another book I found really useful for goats and other animals : ‘Complete Herbal Handbook for Farm and Stable’ by Juliette De Bairacli-Levy.
    Look forward to hearing more about the adventures of Jilly and Gerty!

    • Hannah Moloney

      Ooooo – a new book I haven’t heard of before, thanks so much Sylvia. And I hope you find your way back to goats when you’re able :-).

  9. Jan Roberts

    Fantastic article Hannah. Fiasco Farm website has some brilliant health tips. It is American based so a bit of conversion sometimes needed. Pat Colby’s Australian Goat Keeping is much better but like hens teeth to find.
    Also join FB groups like Dairy Goats Tasmania or Mini Goats Tasmania, who are both always welcome to answer questions and help out. There you get lots of ideas from a huge range of breeders and owners. 😊

    • Hannah Moloney

      Thanks Jan :-). Yes, I’ve got Pat’s book which is great. Keep up all your good work with your own goats!

  10. Alexes Marshman

    Hey Hannah,

    Great info! I also own goats but I am at the other end of the country in Queensland. I am totally familiar with the “steep learning curve” trajectory. I just wanted to make comment on de-worming practices. This is a MAJOR issue in the tropics as we don’t really get a “down-time” here it being hot all year round thus the parasites are fairly active. I have been experimenting for about four years on the best way to de-worm. I’ve tried chemicals (and they work really well, for a short period of time), I was alway really concerned of the eventual resistance build up the worms would get to chemicals and even saw traces of this in my original herd. And I hated putting chemicals in them, and ultimately in the soil and in us!

    For about 6 months I tried a herbal de-worming powder in a drench form which I got from “Molly’s Herbals” in America (a bit of an expensive way to go but I wanted to be sure) and this seemed to work but I found it messy, complicated and a long involved process.

    I actually came across my current way of de-worming at a Doterra essential oil night. At the time I was looking into essential oils for our own use. I was chatting to one of the reps and she told me this crazy story about her 3 year daughter having all these digestion issues, any way long story short, she de-wormed her on the full moon with a triple dose of the normal pharmacy de-wormer you buy over the counter and saw a huge “die off” of worms and a massive improvement in her daughters health! I KNOW sorry this story is a bit gross! But this is reality of being a living, warm-blooded mammal!

    I’d been forming a hypothesis that I could use essential oils to de-worm my goats. If the herbs worked why not a concentrated form of the essence of the plant, thus essential oils???? So I bought 5 different oils, eucalyptus, thyme, bitter orange, clove and garlic oil all with their own properties and created a drench using 15 ml of carrier oil (olive or coconut) and 4 drops each of the other oils. I started drenching my goats on the day of the full moon (when the worms are supposed to be most active). I’ve been doing this for 8 months now and I KNOW it works. Coming close to that time of the month the girls start looking a bit run down and then I dose them and bam! They look healthy and happy and a bit relived to tell you the truth! I know that if you had a particularly bad case you could probably do this over a three day period (I do this every time my girls kid as parasites get really bad just after they give brith). But using essential oils, and a balanced minerals and vitamin diet my goats are really happy and healthy. I see you are already doing essential oils and thought you may be interested in hearing some other stories/experiences with using it. It may work better to do it as you do, smaller doses over a period of a week (and my way may make the milk taste awful for a few days! Lol, you’d just have to see!)

    Sorry about the long post, but really wanted to share my de-warming findings 🙂 Thanks for the great work and for pioneering goats on small scale urban farming practices! It is awesome and inspiring to see!!!

    BTW I love your barn, it is so wonderful, practical and beautiful, love it!

    Kind Regards,

    • Hannah Moloney

      Wow Alexes! Thanks so much for this information and for sharing your experience. IT’s so invaluable and I’ll be trying this for sure!
      All the best 🙂

  11. Kate

    Hi Hannah. Thanks for all this amazing information. Could you give me an idea of how big your goat housing is. Thanks,Kate

  12. Yvonne Wilkins

    Hi Hannah,
    this was a very fabulous blog post!
    We have some goats here in Tas and haven’t been successful in the past with mineral licks. But we’re pretty new to goats (only bought our 2 does in March ’17). We’ve got Olssons Go Block again to try again. Is that the one you get? I can’t see on the label a mention of copper – it’s a bit confusing because on the product information for this lick on their website they mention the importance of copper for goats but then it’s not in the nutritional analysis. I rang the company ages ago but got a vague answer that it did have copper but the person I was talking to seem to not really know a lot about it. Just wondering if that the same block you get?

    • Hannah Moloney

      Hi Yvonne, I do have an Olsson’s mineral lick called “Mineral Health Essentials + Cooper” . So yes, copper is definitely included in the list of minerals. 🙂

  13. Dylan

    Hey Hannah, thanks for sharing all this info. A detail we are after; as we are starting milking yesterday, what do you clean the teats with before and after milking?

    btw Do you grow mugwort? Out goats love it and it’s a natural de-wormer.


    • Hannah Moloney

      Hi Dylan, I was doing all sorts of blends of essential oils, then a soapy/water mix as she cam to me with mild staff and was really run down. But these days I just wipe her udder down with a dry cloth to get rid of any straw/dirt and that’s that. She’s healthy and her shed’s clean etc so I think that’s fine at this stage 🙂

  14. Ben Rule

    Thanks for this Hannah, keeping goats is pretty cool! It’s like having a pet that also contributes to the family too.

  15. Jasmine

    Fantastic post, we aren’t urban but we are up in the bush so not on pasture and I feel like our set up would be similar to yours. Really Helpful. Also I have to ask is one of your goats called Jilly because maybe the prior owner was named Jilly? haha.

  16. Louie

    Such great stuff guys. Much inspiration for our urban goat journey which has just begun. Question – When you added the rooftop sunbaking deck have you just floated/overlaid the duckboard on top of the existing roof sheeting without fixing points through the roof sheeting itself? Such great space utilisation. 🙂 Thanks so much.


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